Central Institute of Psychiatry (CIP), Ranchi is a premier institute for mental health in India. It started in 1918 and since then it has been a pioneer in the field of psychiatry. Till independence this hospital was meant exclusively for the treatment of European patients. With a bed capacity of 643, it is spread over an area of 210 acres.CIP has never been a custodial care facility. It has always been an open hospital with a comprehensive biopsychosocial approach for management of mentally ill patients. Currently the institute functions under the administrative control of Directorate General of Health Services, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India, New Delhi, with the objectives of patient care, manpower development and research in the field of mental health. It was called as European Lunatic Asylum till 1922 when it was named as European Mental Hospital and was put under the control of a Board of Trustees with various participating state governments represented in the Board.This year was also notable for the fact that the hospital got affiliation from the University of London for the Diploma in Psychological Medicine examination. It was a unique phenomenon since the postgraduate training in Psychiatry was nonexistent in India in those days.After independence the name of EuropeanMental Hospital was changed to Inter-ProvincialMental Hospital in 1948 and the hospital was opened for all Indians. It was subsequently renamed as Hospital for Mental Diseases in 1952 and in 1954 its administration was taken over by the Government of India. On April 1, 1977 it was raised to the status of an Institute and was renamed as Central Institute of Psychiatry. Keeping pace with the development in mental health, the institute continued to scale new heights and various modern facilities for investigation and management of mental disorders was added.
There are many firsts to its credit. The first Occupational Therapy Department in 1922, ECT in 1943, psychosurgery and neurosurgery in 1947, clinical psychology and Electroencephalography (EEG) departments in 1948, a full-fledged neuropathology section in 1952, the first use of Lithium in 1952 and chlorpromazine in 1953. A very modern radiology department with facility for sophisticated cerebral angiography, pneumoencephalography, air ventriculography, myelography etc. was established in 1954. Few other landmarks are starting a child guidance clinic in 1950, rural mental health clinic at Mander in 1967, rehabilitation centre and sheltered workshop in 1967, and industrial psychiatry unit at HEC, Ranchi in 1973. It may also be noted that the Indian Psychiatric Society was established in 1948 because of the efforts of this Institute and it was registered in Patna. The first draft of the Bill that subsequently became the Mental Health Act of India (1987) was written at C.I.P, Ranchi in 1949 by Dr. R.B. Davis, the then Medical Superintendent, Dr. S.A. Hasib, from Indian Mental Hospital, Ranchi and Dr. J. Roy, from Mental Hospital, Gwalior. The latter two too had worked at C.I.P., Ranchi at one time or other.The journey has been long and distinguished and its contribution to Indian Psychiatry has set a tradition of excellence in the field of mental health. Berkeley-Hill wrote in his parting note,
“The miserable bear-garden I had taken charge of in October, 1919, had become the finest mental hospital in Asia, and a great deal finer than many mental hospitals in Europe.”
Present Milieu at CIP
Currently CIP has been accredited as one of the very few eco-friendly “Green” infrastructure at Ranchi. The entire campus spanning 350 acres is full of vegetation with less than 20% of the total area being used for capital development. There are numerous trees of various breeds, some of which are more than 90 years old. Some of the trees have been brought from various parts of the world. Lawns have been recently developed and a number of benches are provided at every nook and corner for the patients. CIP uses Solar energy for lights, water pumps and geysers. CIP has a dedicated power supply feeder for regular electricity and apart from that DG sets are available round the clock for power backups. All important mechanical and computerized infrastructure is linked to dedicated UPS supply.
There are 16 wards, eight wards for the male and six wards for the female patients, one family unit and one emergency ward. Each ward is at some distance from other wards. The Hospital Wards are built on the pavilion system with large lawns and flower gardens around each ward. Each ward has well laid out roads. Male and Female sections are separated by a high wall. All the wards are named after eminent mental health professionals. Patients are never confined to rooms. They are free to roam within the boundary wall of the hospital.Apart from drug therapy variouspsychotherapies, behavior therapy, group therapy and family therapy are routinely employed. A milieu therapy approach exists where patients participate in running the ward and help in looking after other patients. Regular physical exercise, outdoor and indoor games and Yoga are on hand for the patients. A very well stacked library having books in English, Hindi, Urdu and Bengali as well as a number of newspapers and magazines is freely accessible to the patients. For our inpatients very sophisticated facilities for various kinds of investigations are available. Latest medicines, good food, exercise, religious discourses, music, entertainment, library, and a canteen are there. A unique feature of the hospital is its open space and patients are free to roam around any where within the boundary wall. Unlike other mental hospitals which are custodial with closed wards, this hospital has always been an open hospital.