A Bose–Einstein condensate (BEC) is a state of matter of a dilute gas of bosons cooled to temperature very close to absolute zero (that is, very near 0 K or −273.15 °C). Under such conditions, a large fraction of bosons occupy the lowest quantum state, at which point macroscopic quantum phenomena become apparent. A BEC is formed by cooling a gas of extremely low density, about one-hundred-thousandth the density of normal air, to ultra-low temperatures. Due to the unique properties of the condensate Lene Hau , showed that light can either be stopped or slowed down significantly to the velocity of 17 meters per second, resulting in an extremely high refractive index.
This state was first predicted, generally, in 1924–25 by Satyendra Nath Bose and Albert Einstein. On June 5, 1995 the first gaseous condensate was produced by Eric Cornell and Carl Wieman at the University of Colorado lab, in a gas of rubidium atoms cooled to 170 nanokelvins (nK). Shortly thereafter, Wolfgang Ketterle at MIT demonstrated important BEC properties. For their achievements Cornell, Wieman, and Ketterle received the 2001 Nobel Prize in Physics .Many isotopes were soon condensed, then molecules, quasi-particles, and photons in 2010