100th Anniversary of the Recognition of Islam in Croatia
Islamic Community in Croatia marks in 2016 the 100th anniversary of the decision brought by the Parliament of the Kingdom of Croatia and Slavonia, recognising Islam as religion on an equal footing with other religions. Actually on 27 April 1916 the law was proclaimed in Croatian Parliament recognising Islam as religion having equal rights as other religions. There is only one country in Europe which can boast longer tradition in this respect and this is Austria. However, there has to be said that in the past century Croatia has still made the farthest advancement as concerns the regulation of the position of Islam and Muslims.
Islamic Community in Croatia is a community of different national and other groups who gather in the Community exclusively to practice religion. Islamic Community is a constitutionally organised community led by the mufti who is also the president of the Meshihat – the supreme executive body.
Issue Date: 27.04.2016 Designer: Nuradin Dino Trtovac, academy-trained painter from Zagreb Illustrator: Photography author: Edib Ahmetašević Printer: ZRINSKI d.d., Čakovec Process: offset Colours: 4 Colours Size: 29.82 x 35.50 mm Values: 3.10 HRK
90th Anniversary of the Croatian Radio & 60th Anniversary of the Croatian Television
With words: „Hallo, hallo! This is Radio Zagreb!” on 15 May 1926 began the broadcasting of Radio Zagreb. At that time only 10 European and totally 15 states had a radio station. On the 30th anniversary of Radio Zagreb, in 1956, Television Zagreb began its broadcasting and in that same year realised also its first live broadcasting. From the very beginnings Croatian Radio television was among the pioneers among public media services in this part of Europe and an esteemed partner within the European Broadcasting Union. As an independent public media service, it is obliged to inform the public on the work of state and public institutions and on all subjects of interest for the society, to treasure national identity, language and culture, to stimulate the development of civil society and democracy, to promote tolerance and respect of diversities, to encourage entrepreneurship and foster solidarity and humanity
Today, Croatian Television broadcasts 4 national TV programs, 3 national radio programs, 8 regional radio programs and the international program The Voice of Croatia. HRT program is accessible on teletext and at www.hrt.hr, and recently also through multimedia services of HRT.
Issue Date: 26.04.2016 Designer: Ivana Vučić i Tomislav-Jurica Kaćunić, designers from Zagreb Printer: ZRINSKI d.d., Čakovec Process: Offset Colours: 4 Colours Size: 35.50 x 35.50 mm Values: 3.10 HRK
Penkala :Eduard Penkala was born in a small town Liptovský sv. Mikuláš (Republic of Slovakia) on 20 April 1871. Still as a young boy he showed talents in technics. He finished elementary school in his native town and secondary education (Gymnasium) in Bielitz, where he passed his final secondary school exam on 28. September 1892. He arrived to Zagreb in 1902, and registered his first invention in 1905. It was a rotating toothbrush. Next year, on 24 January 1906, he registered at the Patent Office an important invention. It was the Automatic mechanical pencil, entered in the registry in Budapest under number 36946 and it meant a real revolution in the development of stationery.
Until Penkala’s invention, black lead pencils were either made of wood (which means that they had to be sharpened) or were mechanical with very complicated way of exchanging and insertion of the black lead refill. The automatic pencil by engineer Penkala did not need sharpening and its thin black lead refill (graphite) was coming out from the pencil body when pressed against paper as it was used up. Today, when an average person cannot imagine life without PC and electronic mail, the invention by Penkala may not seem revolutionary, but more than hundred years ago it indeed changed the world of stationery. Mechanical pencil became an indispensable object of use to anyone who knew how to write. Not even full seven months elapsed after patenting of the automatic pencil by Slavoljub Penkala before its production was initiated. Automatic pencil became a real hit in the European and world market and its success brought excellent business results to the company Edmund Moster & Co.
Writing with such mechanical pencil (named penkala) was a real pleasure. While the black lead refill was being used up, the rest of the refill was automatically coming out from the body of the pencil. Penkala’s automatic pencils were produced in almost any colour as well as the refills they contained. The offers to buy the patent for automatic pencil were coming from all parts of the world, even from Japan. However, engineer Penkala did not want to sell his patent. His pencils were produced only in the factory Edmund Moster & CO.
Engineer Penkala died on 5 February 1922 at the peak of his creative power and in the most fruitful years of his life. We shall never find out how many of his ideas remained unrealised.
Torpedo :When in 1860 as the commander of the frigate Bellona, Giovanni Biagio Luppis (born in Rijeka) was encharged with controlling littoral area and Dalmatian coast and thus had to spend a couple of winter months on board of a ship, he had the chance to think about new weapon which would enable him to perform this task from the shore, in more comfortable conditions than from the board of a ship. Luppis thus designs a small ship filled with explosive with the aim to launch it from the coast and target the enemy, guided and kept on course by means of a kind of leads. With full confidence in his weapon, called “the guardian of the coast” (salvacoste), he addressed the Ministry of War in Vienna; however, because of some evident deficiencies he did not get support for the project. Therefore, with the support of his friend Giovanni Ciotta, also former officer, and a respectable politician and later for many years a mayor of Rijeka, in August 1864 Captain Luppis signed a contract with the English engineer Robert Whitehead and started to work together with him at the invention of a new submarine weapon.
Whitehead immediately realised that the approach of Luppis was old-fashioned and that the weapon had to be „transformed into a fish” and immerged into the water. Therefore, with a completely changed concept, he started to construct a new weapon – torpedo – which already before Christmas, on 21 December 1866 was presented in Rijeka to a special Committee of the Navy Department of the Austro-Hungarian Ministry of War.
Torpedo has not yet been sufficiently developed at that time, but soon it was improved and became efficient. Already in the seventies of the 19th century first deliveries were made from the torpedo factory “Whitehead”, which substantially contributed to the reputation of Rijeka and our engineers.
At the beginning of the 20th century to the torpedo a gyroscope for keeping it on course was added, which made it much more reliable. The factory in Rijeka reached its peak at the time of World War II, when it produced several thousand torpedoes. After the war the production slowly declined and fully ceased in the middle of 60-ties of the previous century. This was the end of the hundred year old tradition of production of the one of technologically best developed weapons of the time.
Issue Date: 27.04.2016 Designer: Ariana Noršić, designer from Samobor Printer: Zrinski d.d., Čakovec Process: Offset Colours: 4 Colours Size: 42.60 x 35.50 and 35.50 x 42.60 mm Values: 5.00 HRK (Torpedo) 6.50 HRK (Penkala)