Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar (14 April 1891 — 6 December 1956), also known as Babasaheb, was an Indian jurist, political leader,philosopher , thinker, scholar, editor and revolutionary. He was also the Chairman of the Drafting Committee of Indian Constitution . Born into a poor family, Ambedkar spent his whole life fighting against social discrimination.He was posthumously awarded the Bharat Ratna , India\’s highest civilian award, in 1990.
Overcoming numerous social and financial obstacles, Ambedkar became one of the first so called \”Outcasts\” to obtain a college education in India. Eventually earning law degrees and multiple doctorates for his study and research in law, economics and political science from Columbia University and the London School of Economics, Ambedkar gained a reputation as a scholar and practiced law for a few years, later campaigning by publishing journals advocating political rights and social freedom for India\’s so-called untouchables.
Upon India\’s independence on August 15, 1947, the new Congress-led government invited Ambedkar to serve as the nation\’s first law minister, which he accepted. On August 29, Ambedkar was appointed Chairman of the Constitution Drafting Committee, charged by the Assembly to write free India\’s new Constitution. Ambedkar won great praise from his colleagues and contemporary observers for his drafting work. Granville Austin has described the Indian Constitution drafted by Dr Ambedkar as \’first and foremost a social document.\’ … \’The majority of India\’s constitutional provisions are either directly arrived at furthering the aim of social revolution or attempt to foster this revolution by establishing conditions necessary for its achievement.\’
The text prepared by Ambedkar provided constitutional guarantees and protections for a wide range of civil liberties for individual citizens, including freedom of religion, the abolition of untouchability and the outlawing of all forms of discrimination Ambedkar argued for extensive economic and social rights for women, and also won the Assembly\’s support for introducing a system of reservation of jobs in the civil services, schools and colleges for members of scheduled casts and scheduled tribes . The Constitution was adopted on November 26, 1949 by the Constituent Assembly.
Ambedkar resigned from the cabinet in 1951 following the stalling in parliament of his draft of the Hindu Code Bill, which sought to expound gender equality in the laws of inheritance, marriage and the economy. Ambedkar independently contested an election in 1952 to the parliament, but was defeated. He was appointed to the upper house, of parliament, the Rajya Sabha in March 1952 and would remain a member until his death.