25th April – 40 Years
The military coup of 25th of April of 1974 in Portugal unexpectedly opened the way to the third wave of democratisation processes in Southern Europe, which would extend to Greece in 1975 and Spain in 1977. In the following decade, the end of the Cold War would trigger a similar process in Latin America and in Central and Eastern Europe. At a time of no major pro democratising international constraints and still in the midst of the cold war, the political rupture brought about by the Portuguese military gave rise to a simultaneous process of democratisation and decolonisation of the last lingering European colonial empire. The singularity of the Portuguese case was precisely the democratising intervention of the movement of the captains, rare if not unique in the XX century. In contrast to Spain, Portugal experienced a transition through collapse and Greece through rupture; however the Portuguese democratisation was accompanied by a strong crisis of the State.
The nature of rupture of the transition, but above all the crisis of the State which it triggered, marked the most complex characteristics of the transition and some dimensions of attitudes regarding the dictatorial past, during this period. Both converged in a double legacy to democratic consolidation, from 1976 onwards. Portugal, as occurred in Greece and Spain, progressively consolidated its democracy, fully integrated in the European Union in the 1980’s. The European Community, as a reference of a developed Europe, played a very important role in democratic consolidation in Portugal, Greece and Spain, not only in the economic field but also in the political sphere.The decolonisation, consolidation of democracy, European Union membership and social change of the last decades of the twentieth century have since swept away many of the legacies which presided over the singularity of Portugal’s democratic transition, and the 25th of April of 1974 is still seen by Portuguese society as the strongest positive symbol of its contemporary history.
Issue Date: 14.04.2014 Designer: Atelier B2 Printer: INCM Process: Offset Colours: 4 Colours Size: 40 x 30.6 mm
Portugal Major Awards of Portuguese Architecture
JÚLIO POMAR WORKSHOP-MUSEUM:This project involved the restoration of a warehouse in Bairro Alto, in Lisbon, in front of the house of Júlio Pomar. A large space in a narrow street. The intervention consisted of the recovery, consolidation and renovation of the building, according to the necessary programme areas (reception, archives, offices, sanitary installations and exhibition zone). Extra construction included an exterior volume with vertical communication (lift and staircase), giving access to an upper gallery so as to expand the exhibition area. It was possible to maintain and restore the structural elements (stone walls and wooden rafters) and endow the building with air treatment facilities. Álvaro Joaquim de Melo Siza Vieira was born in Matosinhos in 1933. He studied architecture at Escola Superior de Belas Artes (School of Fine Arts) of Porto between 1949 and 1955, and his first project was built in 1954.He was professor at Faculdade de Arquitectura da Universidade do Porto (Faculty of Architecture in the University of Porto), the city where he exercised his profession. In 1988 he received the Gold Medal of the Alvar Aalto Foundation, the Prince of Wales award of Harvard University and European Union Prize for Contemporary Architecture/Mies van der Rohe Award. In 1992 he was distinguished with the Pritzker Prize of the Hyatt Foundation of Chicago for his lifetime achievement, and in 1995 with the Gold Medal attributed by the Nara World Architecture Exposition. In 1996 he received the Secil Architecture Prize, and in 1998 the Praemium Imperiale from the Japan Art Association, Tokyo. In 2001 he was awarded by the Wolf Foundation, Israel. In 2002 he received the Gold Lion for the best project in the Venice Architecture Biennale. He was distinguished with the Royal Gold Medal 2009 by the Royal Institute of British Architects of London and, in the following year, with the honour of Commander of the Order of Arts and Letters of Paris and with the Fundación Cristóbal Gabarrón – Plastic Arts 2010 award. In 2011 he received the Gold Medal of the UIA, in Tokyo. He is a member, partner and honorary professor of various institutions, in particular the American Academy of Arts and Sciences; RIBA/Royal Institute of British Architects; BDA/Bund Deutscher Architekten; AIA/American Institute of Architects; Académie d’Architecture de França; Royal Swedish Academy of Fine Arts; IAA/International Academy of Architecture; Ordem dos Arquitectos Portugueses; American Academy of Arts and Letters; Southeast University China and China Academy of Art.
PAULA REGO MUSEUM:I was lucky to be able to choose the land, which increased my responsibility after the painter Paula Rego had selected me as the designer. The land was a walled wood with an empty space in the middle, some old tennis courts of a club, which had disappeared with the «Revolução dos Cravos» (Carnation Revolution). After surveying the trees, and especially the canopy, I developed a series of volumes of different heights to respond to the multiplicity of the programme. The layout of the boxes works as a mineral positive, on the negative remaining from the perimeter of the tree canopy. This play of Yang and Yin between artefact and nature, contributed to the decision on the exterior material, red concrete, a colour opposite to the greed of the wood, which was, in the meantime, reduced by botanical prophylaxis. So that the building would not be a neutral sum of boxes, I established a hierarchy, introducing two large pyramids (vents) at the middle of the entrance, which are the book shop and coffee shop, partially influenced by the great kitchen of Alcobaça, various houses by the architect Raul Lino, and some engravings by Boullé. We were particularly concerned that each exhibition room should always have an opening to the outdoors, to the garden. It is never too much to confront the abstract and totally artificial reality of contemporary art with the daily and harsh reality surrounding us.
Eduardo Souto de Moura was born on the 25th of July 1952, in Porto. He graduated in Architecture at the Escola Superior de Belas Artes (School of Fine Arts) of Porto, in 1980. He collaborated with the architects Noé Dinis (1974), Álvaro Siza (1975 to 1979) and also with Fernandes de Sá (1979 to 1980). From 1981 to 1991, he was assistant professor in his alma mater and later, began to serve as professor in the Faculdade de Arquitectura da Universidade do Porto (Faculty of Architecture in the University of Porto). He owns office since 1980. He is visiting professor at the architectural schools of Paris- -Belleville, Harvard, Dublin, ETH Zurich and Lausanne. He has participated in numerous seminars and given many lectures both in Portugal and abroad. His work has appeared in various publications and exhibitions. In 2011 he received the Pritzker Prize and in 2013 the Wolf Prize.
LISBON GREEN CORRIDOR:The «Corredor Verde de Lisboa» (Lisbon Green Corridor) is a continuous structure which runs through the urban grid of the city of Lisbon. Designed for recreational purposes, based on ecological and cultural concerns, it embodies one of the proposals of the «Plano Verde de Lisboa» (Lisbon Green Plan). Conceived in the 1960’s and implemented in various stages since the 1990’s by the Câmara Municipal de Lisboa (Lisbon City Hall), it begins at Praça dos Restauradores, Avenida da Liberdade, Parque Eduardo VII, Jardim Amália/Alto do Parque and Palácio da Justiça. It descends the slope of Campolide/ Universidade Nova, crosses Avenida Calouste Gulbenkian along a viaduct, passes through Jardins de Campolide and Quinta José Pinto and finally enters into Monsanto Forest Park. Gonçalo Ribeiro Telles was born in Lisbon on the 25th of May 1922. He is a landscape architect and agronomist, and was distinguished with an honorary doctorate by Universidade de Évora in 1994, where he is a full professor emeritus. He served as undersecretary, secretary of state and minister in positions related to the environment. We highlight, from his time in office at the Government and the Assembly of the Republic (Parliament), the promulgation of fundamental legislation on Land Use Planning and Environment. As municipal councillor of Câmara Municipal de Lisboa (Lisbon City Hall), he presented, among others, the proposals of creation of the Parque Periférico (Peripheral Park) and Corredor Verde (Green Corridor) linking Parque Eduardo VII to Monsanto Forest Park. He is the author of various landscape plans and innumerable projects for public and private green areas. In 2013, the International Federation of Landscape Architects (IFLA), which represents landscape architecture at a worldwide level, attributed the IFLA Sir Geoffrey Jellicoe Award to Gonçalo Ribeiro Telles. This award represents the highest honour that this Federation can give, and recognises a landscape architect whose work and contributions over a lifetime have had an incomparable and lasting impact on the wellbeing of society and the environment and on the promotion of the profession.
Issue Date: 08.04.2014 Process: Offset Colours: 4 Colours